Wednesday, September 22, 2021, 8:14 PM
Site: Equinosis Online Learning Portal
Course: Objective Lameness Measurement with the Equinosis Q For Veterinary Students (Objective Lameness Measurement with the Q)
Glossary: Encyclopedia
A

Automated Interpretation and Degree of Evidence (AIDE)

Interpretation assistance is offered at the bottom of the report.

The strength of evidence reported is based on whether the TDH/VS, Diff Max pelvis or Diff Min pelvis is outside of the reference range for that measure and the stride to stride variability (SD). 

Indications of severity are based on a general range of amplitude of lameness, with levels increasing from “very mild”, “mild”, “mild/moderate”, “moderate”, and “moderate/severe”.  

The timing of the asymmetry is also noted in the AIDE. 


C

Compensatory Lameness Patterns

Law of Sides 

Ipsilateral suggests 1º hind limb lameness - THIS IS TRUE!!!!! WATCH OUT

  • Compensatory FL can be of any type (impact, midstance, push off)

Contralateral suggests 1º forelimb lameness - This is partly true…  

Most Common

  • Compensatory contralateral HL decreased push off 

Less Common

  • Compensatory contralateral HL decreased push off and ipsilateral HL decreased impact
  • Compensatory ipsilateral HL decreased impact (note: this pattern could also be indicative of primary hind)
D

Diff Max Head

the difference in maximum head height that occurs before RF weight bearing compared to before LF weight bearing. Ref range: -6.0 to +6.0 mm

  • Measured in mm and reported as a mean value of all strides.
  • Diff Max Head determines timing of asymmetry (depending on sign of Diff Min Head).
  • Diff Max Head = Max height of head before RF weight bearing minus (-) max height of head before LF weight bearing. 

Diff Max Pelvis

the difference in maximum pelvis height that occurs before RH weight bearing compared to before LH weight bearing. Ref range: -3.0 to +3.0 mm

  • Measured in mm and reported as a mean value of all strides. 
  • RH asymmetries are assigned (+) values. LH asymmetries are assigned (-) values.  Elevated Diff Max (either + or -) correlates to a push off lameness in the hind limb. 
  • Diff Max Pelvis = Max height of pelvis before RH weight bearing minus (-) max height of pelvis before LH weight bearing.


Diff Min Head

the difference in minimum head height that occurs during RF mid stance compared to during LF mid stance. Ref range: -6.0 to +6.0 mm 

  • Measured in mm and reported as a mean value of all strides. 
  • Diff Min Head determines side of asymmetry (positive value = RF, negative value = LF). 
  • Diff Min Head = Min height of head during RF mid-stance minus (-) min height of head during LF mid-stance.

Diff Min Pelvis

the difference in minimum pelvis height that occurs during RH mid stance compared to during LH mid stance.Ref range: -3.0 to +3.0 mm

  • Measured in mm and reported as a mean value of all strides. 
  • RH asymmetries are assigned (+) values.  LH asymmetries are assigned (-) values.  Elevated Diff Min (either + or -) correlates to an impact lameness in the hind limb.
  • Diff Min Pelvis = Min height of pelvis during RH mid-stance minus (-) min height of pelvis during LH mid-stance 
H

Hard Surface

If the foot does not create a depression or a divot in the ground, the surface should be considered hard.  Hard preset surfaces = asphalt, concrete, packed dirt, gravel/stone, wood, frozen, treadmill, hard synthetic, hard (generic).


Head Sensor

The head sensor device contains an accelerometer that tracks vertical head acceleration.


I

Indications of Severity

Indications of severity are based on a general range of amplitude of lameness, with levels increasing from “very mild”, “mild”, “mild/moderate”, “moderate”, and “moderate/severe”.

  • “no” evidence: lameness measure is within reference range (see note**)
  • “strong” evidence: Reported when the standard deviation is less than 50% of the mean Diff Min head (since Diff Min Head determines the side of forelimb lameness, it is the more important measure to assess for variability); or Mean Diff Min and/or Diff Max pelvis. 
  • “moderate” evidence: Reported when the SD is between 50 and 120% of the mean.
  • “weak” evidence: Reported when the standard deviation is greater than 120% of the mean.

**The veterinarian should keep in mind that the severities are a range, and should not be used to compare two trials for consistency of amplitude (such as in establishing a stable baseline between two trials) or to assess change in amplitude (such as before and after a block, or change over time).


L

Lameness Metrics

quantitative data from the collected trial. Calculated lameness metrics include 1) mean values of Diff Max head, Diff Min head, Diff Max pelvis and Diff Min pelvis; 2) standard deviations for each respective mean Diff Max and Diff Min;  3) Total Diff Head (mean vector sum) of the forelimb data; and 4) The Q Score for both forelimb and hind limb data.